Advanced Technologies for Cardiac Valvular Replacement, Transcatheter Innovations and Reconstructive Surgery


Since the 2002 Surgical Technology International monograph on valvular prostheses, there have been significant developmental and investigative advances. Aortic bioprostheses and mechanical prostheses have undergone design changes to optimize hemodynamics and prevent patient-prosthesis mismatch to have a potential satisfactory influence on survival. There has been continual technological improvements striving to bring forward advances that improve the durability of bioprostheses and reduce the thrombogenicity of mechanical prostheses. There also has been a continuance to preserve biological tissue with glutaraldehyde, rather than clinically evaluate other cross-linking technologies, by controlling or retarding calcification with therapies to control phospholipids and residual aldehydes. The techniques of mitral valve reconstruction have now been well established and new annuloplasty rings have been designed for the potential of maintaining the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the mitral annulus. Several objectives exist for annuloplasty, namely remodeling of the length and shape of the dilated annulus, prevention of dilatation of the annulus, and support for the potentially fragile area after partial-leaflet resection. Currently, there exists an emergence of catheter-based therapies for management of aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. For management of selected populations with critical aortic stenosis, techniques for aortic valve substitution have been developed for both antegrade and retrograde catheter techniques, as well as apical transventricular implantation. Mitral regurgitation has been addressed by experimental transcoronary sinus, stent-like devices and transventricular, edge-to-edge leaflet devices. The devices, descriptions and pictorial images comprise this monograph.


W. R. Eric Jamieson, M.D., F.R.C.S. (C.), F.A.C.S., F.A.C.C., University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, Canada

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